Function currying in JavaScript

What is function currying? The concept sounds a bit mysterious and perhaps the best explanation I could find comes from the "Pro TypeScript" book by Steve Fenton:

"Currying is a process whereby a function with multiple parameters is decomposed into multiple functions that each take a single parameter. The resulting chain of functions can be called in stages, with the partly applied stage becoming a reusable implementation of the combined function and value."

If it didn't clear anything I hope the following example will:

const converter =
  (currency: string) =>
    (exchangeRate: number) =>
      (amount: number) =>
        currency + (exchangeRate * amount).toFixed(2)

Now you may wonder what's the purpose of building such a chain of functions? If we wanted to use it to convert 5 EUR to a different currency (USD) the notation would look like this:

converter("$")(1.1)(5) // $5.50

A bit strange, if you ask me. Until we realise we can now reuse the function chain to create different currency converting functions:

const eur2usd = converter("$")(1.1);
const usd2eur = converter("€")(0.9);

eur2usd(5) // $5.50
usd2eur(5) // €4.50


I hope this was a good demonstration of possible advantages of function currying in JavaScript.

The following example of function currying in the wild comes from Vue documentation:

getters: {
  // ...
  getTodoById: (state) => (id) => {
    return state.todos.find(todo => === id)